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Posts tagged with ‘Customer Centricity’

Algorithms vs People – Customer Experience Perspective

Algorithm vs human1During the last few months I’ve seen a significant increase in a number of articles warning about the onslaught of automation in workforce. A lot of very respectable and technologically advanced people, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, express their deep concerns about implications of the latest advancements in artificial intelligence. These concerns range from the social implications of automation replacing jobs, previously thought to be immune, to outright threats to the existence of human species.

Shifts in the employment paradigm are the most immediately noticeable to most people who operate in economically developed and developing countries. Growth in entrepreneurship and shared economy at the expense of  permanent shrinkage of full time jobs in manufacturing and service sectors are very obvious in the US. The return of previously outsourced/off shored jobs translates into the automation or  part-time sub-contracting as companies shed off increasingly high costs of full employment.

Those who make their living by fanning conflicts between people, point at evil “employers” as the root of future mass unemployment to be caused by more automation. It is not surprising as they consistently warp economics into a Cinderella for political science and one cannot promote a political agenda without a villain.

“Technology first allowed the job to be outsourced. Now machines at call centers can be used to seamlessly generate spoken responses to customer inquiries, so that a single operator can handle multiple customers all at once. Meanwhile, the customer often isn’t aware that she is mostly being spoken to by a machine.”

I would like to point out that today’s economy is largely consumer driven and without improving customer experience the cost savings, obtained through automation alone, cannot be sustainable.

During the last 3 decades I was actively involved in development, deployment and adoption management of various automated solutions. I have never experienced a sustainable adoption of an algorithmic solution that decreased the cost of delivering customer experience without also improving it. Surely there were many implementations that did not meet both conditions, but inevitably these were abandoned under competitive pressures within 2-3 years of trials.

I will never forget the remarkable advance in my experience as a customer of banking services with the advent of ATM technology. The availability of on-line banking elevated my experience even higher. Did these automation efforts delivered higher profits to the banks? Absolutely! Would these efforts succeed without the customers adopting to them enthusiastically? I don’t think so.

The experience of riding with Uber is a dramatic improvement over the traditional taxi experience most of the time, but algorithmically driven vehicles are likely to make it even better every single time. The cost of the change is the devastation of employment in the transportation industry which currently accounts for over 30% of the US labor force.

Algorithms do not perform better than people. However, they do consistently perform better than many people. Customers demand consistent experience every time. If most bank tellers delivered exceptional customer experience, ATM technology would not be able to replace them. Unfortunately, the impact of our attitudes toward job performance is not commonly considered in this algorithms vs human equation.

We use remarkable, self-learning algorithms optimized for mining customers’ opinions and sentiments from their unstructured comments and reviews to assist in discovery of customer needs and differentiation. However, some product marketing people expressed their frustration with the technology because it does not generate marketing requirements automatically. When such algorithms arrive it will signal the start of product marketing jobs departure. And they will arrive because the product marketing employees demand them and because their customers are likely to get a better experience with products designed by the algorithms.

While the last two decades brought substantial improvement in the quality of algorithms they also brought considerable increase in direct and indirect cost of labor. Meanwhile, we have developed unfortunate expectations that stop us from bringing the best humanity has to offer – curiosity, empathy, original thinking and creativity, to enrich our working lives and to make us indispensible. We (the humans) need to bring our A game to our jobs, and do it consistently, to outperform the algorithms if we don’t want employment to become another meaningless entitlement.

Why is it so difficult to get funding for Customer Experience change?

CX initiative fundedIf you are reading this post you are likely well aware of customer experience’s capacity to improve your company’s performance. You are also likely very frustrated with a lack of actual commitment from your boss. Oh, he is probably saying all the right words at the company meetings, but when it comes to bankrolling the action, the time is never right.

The reality is that while 90% of executives say that customer experience is central to their strategies, and 80% want to use it as a form of differentiation, 86% of these executives do not expect to see a significant uplift in business resulting from it.

The reasons it is so difficult to get funding for customer experience initiatives are:

1. Your boss’s mental framework is focused on cutting costs and/or raising revenue – it is very difficult to find very specific examples (i.e. best practices) that directly connect improvement of customer experience to achieving these goals.


2. Fear is a stronger motivation than desire. The desire to provide better customer experience may not be strong enough to inspire the change. Fear of falling behind the competition in how customers perceive their experience of doing business with your company, may facilitate sufficient stimuli. Particularly if that fear is confirmed by trends in customer churn rate or increased product returns, while your competition enjoys healthy market share growth.


3. We all like to think of ourselves as the rational decision makers. Behavioral economics research exposes how predictably irrational are our decisions. Your boss, assuming s/he is human, is no exception and likely makes very important business decisions based on beliefs rather than evidence. Challenging these beliefs with “solid” data is a fool’s errand. A much better strategy is to understand which of these beliefs inspired him to hire you into his organization in the first place.


It is the time for the disclaimer – I believe that Customer Centricity can only be architected by the top leadership of a company as it requires alliance of corporate culture, customer experience metrics and operational KPIs. It is a long term corporate strategy and not a project or initiative.

However, most of us are not fortunate enough to work for leaders who share our commitment to viewing our company’s business processes and practices through the eyes of its customers. Most of us know how difficult it is to earn credibility and trust while evangelizing the importance of customer experience. Since this is the road less travelled, you are not likely to find a blueprint or a list of waypoints to guide you. However, an understanding of your environment and seasoned advice may help to navigate these uncharted “waters”. The scope for every milestone/waypoint has to be crafted to be uniquely relevant to the specifics of your situation and the landscape of your company. There is not space in this blog post for specific examples, I am happy to offer them, if contacted directly.

Nothing works better for evangelists than miracles delivered on time and within the budget.

Where are Customer Experience Success Stories?

Where are CX success stories.Companies cannot control how their customers perceive their experiences with their products and services. However, they can and they must optimize their processes to deliver the best experiences from their customers perspective, profitably. Some would argue that doing this is critical to a company’s longevity.

In developed markets the quality of customer experience quickly becomes the primary competitive differentiator. Recent studies found that 90% of executives say that customer experience is central to their strategies, and 80% want to use it as a form of differentiation. The problem is that 86% of these executives do not expect to see a significant uplift in business resulting from it. As long as this is the case, nothing will change, and the customer experience mantra will remain just empty words, while their companies continue to compete on price on the race to the bottom.

This will linger on as long as business leaders put the interests of short term share traders ahead of the interests of customers, employees and investors. The focus on quarterly growth of earnings per share benefits only day traders and corporate raiders. All the while the company’s longevity is being compromised. Companies exist to serve customers profitably. The executives, that cannot see “a significant uplift in business results” from customer experience investment, should closely examine what business results they pursue and a time frame they expect the results to occur.

The business results to be expected as a return on customer experience investment made skillfully include, but not limited to:

  • increase in revenue per customer
  • growth of customer lifetime value
  • increase in their market share
  • decline in marketing costs
  • decline in customer support/service costs

However, these gains typically start to make impact on the earnings per share (EPS) two or three years after the first round of the customer experience investment was executed successfully.

Customer Experience Management (CEM or CXM) is a relatively new discipline. A Google search of the term finds the first relevant reference on the second page as the very vague Gartner definition:

” the practice of designing and reacting to customer interactions to meet or exceed customer expectations and, thus, increase customer satisfaction, loyalty and advocacy.”

Given the association of Gartner with the software industry, and the most of subsequent search results point to technology companies, it is easy to assume that customer experience management investment means buying and implementing technology. Nothing can be further from the truth. In fact, technology is never the solution to your customer experience management challenge. The solution is an investment of effort and money into the rethinking of your business processes and practices from your customer perspective. Only after this is accomplished, modeled and tested, may you want to use a technology to speed the proliferation of the results throughout the company.

Specific methodologies and best practices for successful customer experience strategy implementations are very hard to find. Each success came after multiple failed attempts and is unique to the market in which the company operates. When a company considers customer experience to be a competitive differentiator, the last thing it wants to do is to share their hard earned customer competency with their competitors. Over 90% of our clients insist on strict non-disclose conditions before we start any work with them. This experience is not unique.

That is why successful implementations of marginal technology solutions will be publicized and imitated ad nauseum. The successful implementation of customer centricity strategy may see a lot of publicity, but its specifics would always be left for public guesswork and folklore.

Is it Wise to Ignore Correlations Between Customer Experience and Creation of Wealth?

Is it wise to ignoreMany academic studies were published over the last two decades that examined the correlations between improvements in customer satisfaction/advocacy/experience and increase in sales, profits, market share or share value. Below are some examples


Advocacy Drives Growth Across Industries


Customer Satisfaction Heterogeneity and Shareholder Value


Customer Satisfaction, Market Share and Profitability



If there was a debate, by now it is over. Yet, customer experience management practitioners often fail to convince their bosses and clients to take decisive actions that can measurably improve the experience of their customers.


I think the primary reason for this frustrating situation is the cultural divide:


  • CXM practitioners are often focused too much on the complexities of methodologies for measuring, and statistics. Our clients and bosses are often too focused on quarterly financial results.
  •  CXM practitioners often lack the business domain knowledge required for the translation of market research findings into specific recommendations that our bosses and clients can embed into their strategy and process.
  • When we do amass the knowledge and courage to make the recommendations, our bosses and clients want us to predict their outcomes. Since they do not appreciate differences between correlations and causations they are frustrated with our lack of confidence in our own recommendations.


These cultural differences drive many CXM professionals into endless selection of “better” methodologies for measuring customer experience and pursuit of poorly defined accuracies of vanity metrics. In other words they retreat into their comfort zone and relinquish their ambitions of contributing to improve their employer’s ability to win in the market place. I can confidently predict that such surrender will not enhance their value to their employer.

Here are a few tips for bridging this cultural divide:

1. Start to think more as an economist than a statistician. Focus more on problems and processes that impact customer experience, and less on data, metrics and technologies.

2. Stop debating which methodology is better (CSAT/NPS/CES, etc). Your customers do not care how you measure their experience. They only care if your product, service, brand or company delivers a better experience to them than your competition.

3. Stop asking your customers the “on the scale from A to Z…” questions and pretending that to be the Voice of Customer. These scores rarely tell you WHY your customers chose a competing offer. The research is about discovery of new knowledge, not about tabulating survey scores into neat piles.

4. Model your recommendations extensively before you present them to your boss or client. They know how to assess and manage uncertainties in their own fields (sales forecasting, etc.). You need to frame your predictions similarly so your boss or client can assess risk/reward ratios and start acting.

“Be the change you want to see in the world” and if you don’t like the change, you will like irrelevancy even less.

3 Critical Shortfalls of Surveying Customers

Stupid surveyI am not a big fan of using survey methodology for research into customer experience. I think it is a great tool for hypothesis validation, which is a part of customer experience research, but it is a very poor tool for learning about customers’ perceptions of dealing with a product or a company. You can never learn anything fundamentally new by asking closed ended questions. Surely, this point of view is not shared by most companies that pretend they want to know the opinions of their customers because they don’t want to learn anything that does not support their established beliefs.

However, if your tool’s box is limited to basics, at the very least you should learn how to use them well. I would argue it is better not to send out a poorly executed survey at all than to aggravate your customers with poorly timed and executed ones.

Here are the most common shortfalls of using surveys

  1. Timing – Practitioners often complain about the challenges of engaging customers to share their experiences. That is because 9 out of 10 attempts to engage (in a form of survey) are viewed by customers to be disruptive or poorly timed*. In other words, customers were asked to share their experience before they had an opportunity to sufficiently experience a product/service in question. The time and channel of engagement was determined by a company without considering the perspective or convenience of the customers. Advertising the self-centered nature of your company in the world of socially connected consumers, will not likely improve your brand equity, market share or whatever else you measure to get bonuses.
  2. Asking to quantify an experience a customer may not have experienced – The other day I got a survey from a company I like to do business with. This survey contains 30 questions, which is abusive in my opinion. 28 of them start with “On the scale from X to Y….”, while only 2 questions start with “Why…” and “How…”. About 40% of the questions asked me to quantify my experience with parts of the company’s service which I never had a reason or an opportunity to experience yet, but no provision is made in the survey to indicate this fact. So, such survey design leaves a customer with two options – to provide intentionally wrong answers or to ignore the request of participation in the survey. Which of these two outcomes would suit your survey design goals? This customer now does not feel as good about doing business with the company as he did before receiving the survey.
  3. Limit the number of words a customer can use for commentary – I do appreciate that an enterprise cannot “digest” unstructured data and you need to tabulate all responses into metrics. However, if you really want to authentically engage your customers you need to understand that the enterprise “digestion” issues are not very high on your customers’ pyramid of emotional needs. Humans share their experiences with stories, not numbers. If you limit their ability to tell their stories, you may never learn a critical insight that would lead to a dramatic business improvement. There are methods, techniques and technologies that can help to mine customer comments and quantify their sentiments without “outsourcing” your operational challenges to your customers.

The common theme of this post is simple – If you want to improve your customer engagement rate, be mindful and respectful of how your customers experience your attempts to engage with them.

* the results of a client sponsored research conducted by mining opinions of 12,783 customer comments.

Top 5 Warnings to Customer Experience Marketers

Never try to sell a meteor

  1. Stop designing products. Customers do not want to experience products and they care very little about product’s features and functions. Customers do not buy products, they hire products to do a “job”. Ultimately, you need to learn what is the “job” your customers would hire your products to deliver, i.e. what is a desired outcome. That learning is difficult as the customers can rarely articulate their desired outcomes in a way that is useful for writing standard market requirements document. That is why lesser marketers like to declare themselves visionaries, quote Steve Jobs out of context, and rely on advertising to deliver mediocre products.

“Making it easier and cheaper for customers to do things that they are not trying to do rarely leads to success. The job, not the customer, is the fundamental unit of analysis for a marketer who hopes to develop products that customers will buy”

  1. While designing for customer experience, it helps to think in terms of delivering the customer’s desired outcome. Customers yearn for simplicity on every step of their journey, from clarity of realization that your product is the best path to the outcome they desire, to simple and trustworthy ways of sharing their experiences with others.
  2. “Clever” messages are entertaining. Honest communications, in the language that resonates with your potential customers’ experiences, are selling your products and services. Do not try to engage with people you cannot help, because that reveals a lack of competence or authenticity. Both compromise your reputation and undermine trust.


 “Without trust, a business cannot grow. Without reputation a business cannot be trusted.”


Every few months I get an invitation to participate in Customer Experience survey from one of the best known consultancy in the field. Every time I am disqualified because my firm cannot be their customer. Every time the new invitation is received I lose a bit of trust that this provider can really help his customers, if they can’t help themselves to do it right.


  1. Technology can be a very powerful ally in supporting your customer experience marketing strategy. It cannot replace strategy. Regardless of what you hear from your technology vendors. Technology provides efficiency and scale, but most of us are challenged by effectiveness.


“The difference between efficient and effective is that efficiency refers to how well you do something, whereas effectiveness refers to how useful it is.”


If we don’t have the solution to the challenges faced by our best probable customers, technology will help us to damage our trustworthiness at a very low cost per unit.


  1. Don’t try to control the experience of your customers. Not only is it impossible to do, as customer experience is their perception of doing business with you and cannot be controlled, it is damaging to your reputation to try. The less friction customers experience on their path to realize the outcome they desire, the better is their perception of doing business with the company. From that perspective, removal of any unnecessary steps, keystrokes, questions, interactions, etc. from the customer’s path provides the best return on customer experience management investment.

The road to hellish Customer Experience is paved with careless implementations of technology

Health, CX and TechnologyI am blessed with very good health and have no medical conditions to the best of my knowledge, but my wife insisted that it is time for a complete medical exam. She even supplied me with a link to setup my appointment online. Within 3 seconds after I opened a web form to see the availability of the doctor I wanted to visit, a pop-out survey blocked my view asking me to rate my experience using this scheduling service. Such pestering became so common that I don’t get irritated anymore when facing it. At least you can just refuse to “play” and continue most of the time. I just don’t understand why a company wants to “invest” in annoying their customers – after all it is not difficult to figure out this user of their “service” could not possibly rate his experience since he did not have one yet.

After selecting an available date and entering requested data into the two following forms, the service prompted me to click on a “Book the Appointment” button that followed by a message with apologies for not being able to book it and the phone number to call for help. It turns out the number was for technical support of the booking system. The support was neither technical nor supportive. They were not interested nor capable to help me book the appointment. The best they could do was to give the doctor’s office number to call.

It turned out the number was not for the doctor’s office, but for the “health program provider” charged with a duty to book appointments for a group of doctors. The person on the other end asked me for the same information I entered on the their web site, but before we concluded the process our call was interrupted. Imagine my “delight” when I heard an automated message cheerfully asking me to rate my experience. I had to hang up and call again to connect with another person who wanted me to start this process from the beginning. At this point I felt that this experience is destined to raise my blood pressure and the best thing to do for my health is to avoid this medical establishment at any cost.

This type of moronic implementations of technology is not limited to medical or government institutions. After all they have designed any accountability for their performance out off their “business” model a long time ago. I am not sure why they even waste money on the charade of “patient experience” or “citizen experience”.

Much more intriguing is how wide spread such examples of technology implementations are among honest business, large and small. Even the companies that advertise themselves as providers of customer engagement technologies for others are not immune to this disease of carelessness.

Change does not start with technology. It starts with realization that you have to change. In the case of the experience you deliver to your customers, you have to realize that the current level is not sustainable. You don’t have to care about your customers-you have to care about your ability to keep them. That realization leads to:
• a sincere attempt to walk a mile in the customer’s shoes and to look at your company through their eyes
• re-design of existing engagement processes from the outside-in perspective
• Acquire a technology to implement these processes to scale them for consistent delivery across the company

The careless implementation of customer engagement technologies amplifies the clear signal that the company does not really care about its customers and uses the customer experience buzzwords to cut their operating costs. Just like they did when they sold CRM “solutions”. It did work then. Now it may not work anymore because today a business is not about cost reduction. Today your customers can easily determine which vendors walk the customer experience walk, leaving those who just talk it, behind.

The way you engage your customers speaks so loud, they can’t hear your marketing messages.

Why Privacy Is A Part of Customer Experience

Easy TargetNot a month goes by without a revelation of a mass data breach at a major commercial or government institution. Since the Target fiasco the well being of customers who shop at Michaels Stores, Sally Beauty Supply, Neiman Marcus, AOL, eBay and P.F. Chung was compromised. The credit scores and reputation of 47% of US adults are compromised by white color criminals. Experts estimate the annual cost to US economy to reach $100B.  Google’s breach of their email users information is not included here because the users are not Google’s customers, the advertisers are and their experience was not degraded by the breach.


As the list of security breaches grows longer a common pattern of apologies and very rare firings is emerging. It appears that institutions, to which we entrust our vital information, treat these systematic failures as no more than Public Relations set backs. After empty apologies and stupid advice to change your password, there are no reports of real investment into fundamental change in securing our data.


To be fair, the commercial institutions affected usually do mitigate customer’s monetary losses directly attributed to their breach of security. However, they are not held responsible for any negative impact on these customer’s credit history or other non monetary losses cascading from the careless treatment of customer’s data.


I use the word “careless” intentionally, because these security breaches are not the result of irresistible technological prowess of international mad geniuses. They are a direct result of an economic equation – it is cheaper for an institution to reimburse customers than to implement a bulletproof data protection. Once again business leaders and government bureaucrats put short term financial results and budgetary priorities ahead of the long term interests of their key stakeholders – customers, investors and taxpayers.

Smartphone fraud

As consumers we should have the opportunity to assess the reputation and history of a business  guarding their customer’s data, before we decide to do business with the company.  Yet, when every government clerk or doctor’s office assistant demands my Social Security data, there is nothing I can do to protect myself. Meanwhile 1.84M people affected by medical identity theft in 2012.


Data security is not my field, customer centricity is. The reason I am writing about this subject is because I see an epidemic of customer data breaches and other forms of cyber fraud as a sign of fundamental disregard for customer safety. In my opinion these organizations have to be held accountable to a higher standard as their leadership breaches their fiduciary obligations.


An onslaught of technological innovation is marching on and I like the new, shiny toys as much if not more than most. However, I am aware more than most that designers, manufacturers and retailers who sell us these toys do not view our security as their responsibility. They should, before we stop buying.

Stop buying

The Gospel of Customer Centricity

Customer centricThe price of a product, the brand value and the other pillars of marketing are no longer the most important factors in a consumer’s selection process. At a certain level of affluence the “absolute value” of experience, a company is likely to deliver, becomes the pivotal point in making the selection. Global trends point to a dramatic growth of consumers who are reaching, or about to reach, that level. Therefore, customer-centric companies are likely to outperform their competitors, who’s leaders cannot see beyond the next quarter’s financial results.

Customer centricity starts with realization that your company cannot deliver a superior customer experience to everybody who wants to buy your product or service.


Customer centricity is about:


  • knowing who your best customers are – beyond demographics and persona definitions.

Regardless of the type of business – B2B, B2C or any other combination of letters, it is people who decide whether they had a good experience as your customers or they should try someone else. These people share their opinions with others, like they always have. However, now these opinions have as much, or more, impact on shoppers as advertising.

  • knowing WHY your best customers buy what you are selling.

According to Peter Drucker –

“The customer rarely buys what the company thinks it is selling him”.

It is critical to understand what “job” they “hire” your products to do. Go beyond sketchy marketing requirements, and deliver the ultimate simplicity of experience to perform that “job”.

  • exclusivity – it may not be politically correct or culturally easy to accept, but a company cannot deliver a top quality experience to any customer – only to those it is best focused on to serve profitably.

That means it is better for such a company’s culture, it’s employees, it’s target customers, and the consumers at large to clearly communicate what type of customers it will not serve, because it cannot deliver the quality of experience they deserve. The best example I know is USAA that leads every chart as the top customer experience provider, but will not take your business if you are not a member of the military family.

Enterprises deliver operational efficiencies through departmental silos that can easily lead to fragmentation of customer experience.  Business intelligence data warehouses can integrate internal data flows to produce a holistic view of the enterprise performance, in terms of growth and efficiencies. However, without connecting it all to customer’s perceptions of their experiences, the enterprise’s sustainable effectiveness cannot be measured.


Customer centricity is not a project or corporate initiative. It may or may not involve investment in technology and if it fails, it is an ultimate failure of the company’s leadership and not IT, Customer Service or any other of its departments. Customer centricity is a cultural transformation that leads to embracing a customer into the inner circle of the company’s stakeholders. Without customers, employees and shareholders – there is no company.


3 Questions for the Author of “Hooked on Customers”

2014-07-05_130104Last week I had the opportunity to ask Bob Thompson, the author of the book “Hooked on Customers”, a few questions. Bob  is an international authority on customer-centric business management who has researched and shaped leading industry trends since 1998. He is founder and CEO of CustomerThink Corporation, an independent research and publishing firm, and founder and editor-in-chief of CustomerThink.com, the world’s largest online community dedicated to helping business leaders develop and implement customer-centric business strategies. His book reveals the five habits of leading customer-centric firms.

CX-IQ.COMBob, many industry observers, as well as practitioners, agree that a culture and politics of organizational silos negatively impact experience of the customers. Have you encounter in your research any specific practices of customer-centricity leaders,  that allow them to overcome this challenge? Can you share it/them with our readers?

Bob Thompson – People often blame organizational silos for customer experience dysfunction, and for good reason. But the answer is not to “bust” silos, because they also serve a purpose: specialization. However, you can’t expect silo managers to cooperate on their own without encouragement from their boss. Having shared metrics and rewards can help. For example, if one team is responsible for the web experience and another the call center experience, management can encourage cooperation by setting up metrics and rewards that focus (and reward) both groups on the overall customer experience. Sprint used this technique, and also rallied around an internal metric that drove the business case: cost.

CX-IQ.COM – In your book’s “Habit 1 – Listen” chapter, you shared lessons for managing VoC from perspective of different companies. Some of these lessons mention benchmarking of the company metrics against their industry averages obtained from 3rd party providers. There is a debate in CXM community about methodological integrity, and therefore a value, of comparing a company’s numbers with the ones produced externally. How critical, in your opinion, is a benchmarking practice for an improvement of customer experience?

Bob Thompson – I agree that it’s difficult to benchmark, but it’s important to understand how one company compares to another in the customer’s mind. Customers make decisions based on what is different between options in their consideration set, not the absolute raw scores. I would recommend benchmarks produced by an outside firm to ensure it’s an apples to apples comparison.

CX-IQ.COM – Bob, you quote Jeanne Bliss “human duct tape” role definition of CCO. I am a big fan of duct tape – for a quick repair that needs to be done right later. As you point out through your book – customer-centricity is not a destination, it is a journey. How long can a “ship” sail, patched together with a duct tape? Isn’t a CCO only needed where CEO and CMO have failed?

Bob Thompson – Any change requires specialized help, and customer-centric change is no different. An effective CCO can help bridge the gaps in the short term while implementing systemic reforms that, eventually, will mean the CCO is no longer needed.

CX-IQ.COMBob, thank you very much for the great book and for sharing with us the lessons you have learned in your research.

For more information you can visit HookedOnCustomers.com.